Inclusive Design Resources

The resources are recommended by Hua Dong (PhD Cantab), Professor in Design at Loughborough University, DRS Fellow and International Convenor of the DRS Inclusive Design Research Special Interest Group (InclusiveSIG).

Existing resources and relevant organisations

  • http://www.inclusivedesigntoolkit.com/ What is inclusive design and why do inclusive design? You can find straightforward answers to these questions from this website. The website also explains the process of inclusive design, and gives information about simulations tools and design exclusion calculation tools.

  • http://designingwithpeople.rca.ac.uk This website offers simple methods and tools for inclusive design. It includes 10 persona profiles based on real disabled people; their daily activities, 20 research methods, and guidance for ethics.

  • http://universaldesign.ie You can find examples of built environment, products and services, and technology/ICT from this website. There are also a range of freely downloadable guidance, booklets and papers about universal design.

Key legislation, policies, and standards

United Nations’ convention on the rights of persons with disabilities

The Principles of the Convention are:

  • Respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make one’s own choices, and independence of persons;

  • Non-discrimination;

  • Full and effective participation and inclusion in society;

  • Respect for difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities human diversity and humanity;

  • Equality of opportunity;

  • Accessibility;

  • Equality between men and women;

  • Respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities and respect for the right of children with disabilities to preserve their identities.

CEN standard: EN 17161:2019 on Accessibility (European Standard)

  • https://www.cen.eu/news/brief-news/Pages/NEWS-2019-014.aspx

    This is a European process Standard about using a Universal Design (Design for All) approach at all levels in organisations to continuously improve and manage the accessibility and usability of the products and services they provide.

  • Equality Act 2010: guidance (United Kingdom)

  • The Equality Act has brought different discrimination legislation together, including:

  • Sex Discrimination Act 1975

  • Race Relations Act 1976

  • Disability Discrimination Act 1995

Academic papers and books

Persson, H., Åhman, H., Yngling, A.A. Gulliksen, J. Universal design, inclusive design, accessible design, design for all: different concepts—one goal? On the concept of accessibility—historical, methodological and philosophical aspects. Univ Access Inf Soc 14, 505–526 (2015).

This paper investigates the various concepts used for accessibility, its methodological and historical development and some philosophical aspects of the concept.

Luck, R. Inclusive design and making in practice: bringing bodily experience into closer contact with making. Design Studies 54, 96-119 (2018)

This paper offers insights into the nature of inclusive design: “by bringing the bodily experience of people with (dis)abilities more closely into their own design processes we see positive characteristics and advantages in inclusive design’s closer connections with making.”

Pullin, G., Design Meets Disability, MIT Press, Cambridge, US (2009)

A beautiful and thought-provoking book on design and disability.

Projects and examples

  • Apple: accessibility

    https://www.apple.com/uk/accessibility/ You can see how Apple considers and accommodates different abilities in its design. görebilirsiniz.

  • Fixperts

    http://fixing.education/films Over 500 short Films (Typically 3 minutes each) showing ingenious, generous and inspiring fixes from Fixperts projects. You can view the films according to the categories, e.g. inventions, disability, age, home, work, community, DIY etc.

  • Awards winning inclusive Website:

    https://www.gov.uk/ This website is a good example, showing how you can find UK government services and information “simpler, clearer, faster”

Information on disability

World Health Organisation: Towards a Common Language for Functioning, Disability and Health ICF


The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, known more commonly as ICF, provides a standard language and framework for the description of health and health-related states. It is a classification of health and health-related domains. These domains are classified from body, individual and societal perspectives by means of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation.

World Health Organisation (WHO) GATE (Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology) https://www.who.int/phi/implementation/assistive_technology/phi_gate/en/

GATE is a global initiative of the WHO. This is in partnership with stakeholders who represent international organizations, donor agencies, professional organizations, academia, and user groups, to realize the obligations of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities towards increasing access to assistive technology.

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1
WCAG 2.1 covers a wide range of recommendations for making Web content more accessible. Following these guidelines will make content more accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities, including accommodations for blindness and low vision, deafness and hearing loss, limited movement, speech disabilities, photosensitivity, and combinations of these, and some accommodation for learning disabilities and cognitive limitations (but will not address every user need for people with these disabilities.) These guidelines address accessibility of web content on desktops, laptops, tablets, and mobile devices.